Польша в условиях предвоенного кризиса и начала второй мировой войны в марте - сентябре 1930 года

Дипломная работа: Польша в условиях предвоенного кризиса и начала второй мировой войны в марте - сентябре 1930 года

Федеральное агентство по образованию

Государственное образовательное учреждение

высшего профессионального образования

«АЛТАЙСКИЙ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ»

ИСТОРИЧЕСКИЙ ФАКУЛЬТЕТ

КАФЕДРА ВСЕОБЩЕЙ ИСТОРИИ И МЕЖДУНАРОДНЫХ ОТНОШЕНИЙ

ПОЛЬША В УСЛОВИХ ПРЕДВОЕННОГО КРИЗИСА И НАЧАЛА ВТОРОЙ МИРОВОЙ ВОЙНЫ В МАРТЕ-СЕНТЯБРЕ 1939 ГОДА

(дипломная работа)

Выполнила студентка5 курса, 146 гр. Сачко Е.И.

___________________

(подпись)

Научный руководительк.и.н., доцент

Аршинцева О.А.___________________

(подпись)

Допустить к защите:зав. кафедрой, д.и.н., проф.

Чернышов Ю.Г.___________________

(подпись)

«_____»______________2009 г.

Дипломная работа защищена «___» ______________ 2009 г.

Оценка __________________

Председатель ГАК: д.полит.н., проф.

Барабанов О.Н.________________

(подпись)

Барнаул 2009

ОГЛАВЛЕНИЕ

Summar

Введени

Глава 1. Польша и международное положение в Европе в марте-июле 1939 г

1.1. Польско-германские отношения и внешняя политика Польши весной 1939г.

1.2. Итоги англо-франко-советских переговоров

Глава 2. Польша и заключение советско-германского пакта о ненападении

Глава 3. Агрессия Германии против Польши и ее итоги

3.1. Германо-польская война

3.2. Четвертый раздел Польши

Заключение

Список использованных источников и литературы

SUMMARY

The diploma paper is called Poland in pre-war crisis and the beginning of the Second World War in March-September 1939. The main goal of the paper is to research the shifts in Poland international pattern and Polish foreign policy.

Like Czechoslovakia, modern Poland was born out of the Paris Peace Treaties of 1919. Historically there had been a Polish kingdom, but both Germany and Russia had swallowed this up in the Eighteenth Century. The Paris Peace Treaties gave the ethnic Poles their own country again.

Poland drove a wedge between Germany proper and East Prussia. This Polish Corridor gave Poland access to the sea at Danzig (Gdansk). There were many ethnic Germans living in the Polish Corridor.

Hitler started to make moves against Poland in March 1939 just as Germany invaded the rest of Czechoslovakia. Anti-Polish propaganda was published in Germany; this claimed that the Poles were mistreating Germans living in the Polish Corridor.

Under pressure, Great Britain and France reluctantly agreed to guarantee Poland from German attack. This was intended as a warning to Hitler that appeasement had gone far enough. But, matters took a turn for the worse in August 1939.

Despite their political differences, both Germany and the USSR needed each other’s co-operation in the autumn of 1939. As Hitler prepared to take back the Polish Corridor, he did not want to get embroiled in a war with the USSR. Stalin was well aware of German ambitions in the USSR, but saw this pact as an opportunity to give time in order to further prepare defences and for the USSR to control an even greater buffer zone against Germany. The Pact was totally cynical on both sides. Hitler and Stalin knew they would go to war with each other eventually, but neither were ready for a war over Poland in 1939. The Nazi-Soviet Pact solved this. Hitler and Stalin agreed to divide Poland between them.

The USSR was the only country that could have helped Britain stop a German invasion of Poland. In fact, maverick MP Winston Churchill had urged Britain to sign an agreement with the USSR all through the summer of 1939, despite his own suspicions of communism. Britain did not hurry the negotiations with the USSR believing that there was still time to spare. Chamberlain was wrong, Hitler had already signed a deal with Stalin.

As Hitler prepared himself for war with Poland, he began to offer Chamberlain the hope of negotiation and appeasement. Hitler believed that Britain would withdraw its guarantee to Poland, just as it had done with Czechoslovakia. Many British politicians, including Chamberlain, believed that Hitler’s claims to the Polish Corridor were only fair and reasonable. Hitler offered to ‘protect’ the British Empire. He said that Poland was the ‘last problem’ and that once it had been solved he would retire and return to his true vocation as an artist! Chamberlain was prepared to appease Hitler, but British public opinion by then was turning against Chamberlain and appeasement.

On August 31st Hitler ordered some SS soldiers to dress up as Polish soldiers. These men crossed into Poland secretly and attacked a German radio station on the border. This gave Hitler the excuse to declare war on Poland. On September 3rd 1939 both Britain and France issued an ultimatum to Hitler to end his attack on Poland. It was ignored. The Second World War had begun.

The British had no way of reaching Poland with an army. The French could have invaded Germany as they had at the start of World War I, but they did now what they should have done then: they sat in their trenches. It was the beginning of what would be called the sit-down war (sitzkrieg). Some British forces landed in France on September 10. And Soviet armies moved to the Curzon line on the 17th, with hardly any opposition from the Poles - occupied as they were with the Germans.

Poland surrendered to Germany on September 24, with Hitler hoping that Britain would soon change its mind and give up its intent to wage war against Germany. On September 28 according to the Boarder and Friendship Treaty Poland was divided between German and the USSR.

It is the lack foreseeing and false peace policy of Western democracies that lead Poland to the Second World War. Instead of finding profitable compromise and becoming a junior partner of the USSR or Germany, Warsaw continued their manoeuvre policy. As a result Poland was occupied, divided and lost the independence.

ВВЕДЕНИЕ